Senin, 01 Agustus 2011

History of Educational Technology


There is no written evidence which can tell us precisely who has coined the phrase educational technology. Various educationists, scientists and philosophers at several time intervals have put forwarded distinct definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technologies is a multifaceted and integrated method involving persons, process, tips, devices, and organization, where technologies from various fields of science is borrowed as per the need and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those complications involved in all aspects of human studying.

Educational technologies, broadly speaking, has passed by means of 5 stages.

The initial stage of educational technology is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete supplies. The term educational technologies was employed as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second stage of educational technology is related with the 'electronic revolution' with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software program. Use of many audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and tv brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for helpful presentation of instructional supplies.

The third stage of educational technology is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to 'communication revolution' for instructional purposes. Personal computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) employed for education because 1950s also became well-known throughout this era.

The fourth stage of educational technologies is discernible by the individualized procedure of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction supplied a new dimension to educational technologies. A method of self-studying based on self-instructional supplies and teaching machines emerged.

The most recent idea of educational technologies is influenced by the concept of program engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on analysis.

Educational technology throughout the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational technologies, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the 3-age method periodization of human prehistory namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of a number of handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the effortless technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age many people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technologies to migrate from one location to a further across the Ocean, by which they developed their 1st informal education of information of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. For the duration of the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools had been made from a selection of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be regarded as as the first actions in mining technologies. The polished axes had been so helpful that even soon after look of bronze and iron individuals utilized it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.

Even though Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in numerous museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.

Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age persons further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.

The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technologies to lower the price of living due to the fact iron utensils had been stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period prior to the development of written scripts.

Educational technologies throughout the period of Ancient civilizations
According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technologies can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of expertise and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In just about every stage of human civilization, 1 can acquire an instructional method or set of procedures intended to implement a certain culture which were also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The extra advanced the culture, the alot more complicated became the technologies of instruction created to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each and every important shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.

The greatest advances in technologies and engineering came with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the globe to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the component is under today's Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as effectively as some portion of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost portion of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a lengthy term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan many people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least appears to be or a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 simple signs, with lots of variations. Men and women write their script with the direction frequently from proper to left. Most of the writing was located on seals and sealings which had been in all probability utilized in trade and official & administrative work.

Harappan people had the understanding of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They had been the very first in the world to create a method of uniform weights and measures.

In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists located that the Indus script's pattern is closer to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-but-unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the main techno-offerings from China contain paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technologies by further culturing several handmade items of paper as means of visual aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was at 1 point 1 of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was created up of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, several tools, and so on. These pictures are popularly referred to as hieroglyph. Their language was produced up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which had been discovered and rescued latter on offers the evidence of existence of lots of forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.

Educational technology for the duration of Medieval and Contemporary Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking method which was developed in China for the duration of the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread producing method to a awesome extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with growing supply of rags, this led to the production of low-cost paper, which was a prime factor in the development of printing technology.

The invention of the printing press was taken spot in roughly 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a prime developmental factor in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the have to have of the complex and advanced-technologies cultured society.

In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was just the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes had been relied heavily upon effortless items like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational technologies was considered synonymous to basic aids like charts and photos.

The year 1873 could be regarded as a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Approach exerted a dynamic impact on educational technologies by way of her development of graded materials designed to deliver for the correct sequencing of subject matter for each and every individual learner. Contemporary educational technologies suggests lots of extension of Montessori's idea of prepared child centered environment.

In1833, Charles Babbage's design of a general purpose computing device laid the foundation of the modern day pc and in 1943, the first computing machine as per hi style was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Laptop or computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in which the personal computer functions essentially as a tutor as effectively as the Talking Kind writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Because 1974, computers are interestingly employed in education in schools, colleges and universities.

In the beginning of the 19th century, there had been noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its begin of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in generating sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom had been equipped with radios and there were normal daily programmes.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine named 'Drum Tutor' in 1920. Professor Skinner, nonetheless, in his famous write-up 'Science of Understanding and art of Teaching' published in 1945 pleaded for the application of the expertise derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.

Although the initial practical use of Normal television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted by means of television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television began to be used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Because 1960, tv is used for educational purposes.

In 1950, Brynmor, in England, applied educational technological steps for the 1st time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also began progressing in the filed of educational technologies. In this way, the beginning of educational technologies took location in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.

Throughout the time of about 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep shortage of teachers in America and hence an urgent want of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.

Team teaching had its origin in America in the mid of 1950's and was initially started in the year 1955 at Harvard University as a part of internship plan.

In the year 1956, Benjamin Bloom from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, "The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain".

In 1961, Micro teaching method was first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.

Electronics is the principal technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became well-known and occupied practically all the very important offices and educational locations and even in prevalent places in developed countries with the benefit of connecting house computers with music libraries and mobile phones.

Today's classroom is a lot more most likely to be a technology lab, a room with rows of students utilizing world-wide-web connected or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or maybe students are attending a video conferencing or virtual classroom or may well have been listening to a podcast or taking in a video lecture. Rapid technological modifications in the field of educational have developed new methods to teach and to find out. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a selection of information on a global scale via the Net, to enhance their lessons as nicely as to make them competent skilled in their area of concern. At the very same time, students can make use of vast resources of the World-wide-web to enrich their studying expertise to cope up with changing trend of the society. Now a days students as properly teachers are attending seminars, conferences, workshops at national and international level by utilizing the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a range of necessary courses of their option in distance mode via on-line learning methods. Over the internet understanding facility has opened infinite number of doors of opportunities for today's learner to make their life happier than ever just before.

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